Economy & Market
A bond is a financial instrument typically issued by a government, company, or other entity to raise funds. A bond is a form of borrowing in which the issuer (debtor) lends money to the buyer (creditor) and in return pays back the principal and a certain amount of interest at a specific date in the future. Here are some important points about bonds:
- Issuer: Issuers of bonds can be governments (treasury bonds), companies (corporate bonds), or other entities that need to raise funds to support various projects and operations.
- Face Value: Bonds usually have a face value that represents the principal amount of the bond, which is the amount borrowed. Face value is usually USD 1,000 or multiples of other currencies.
- Interest: Bondholders receive certain interest payments while they hold the bond, usually on an annual or semi-annual basis. The interest rate is called the coupon rate of the bond.
- Maturity date: A bond has a maturity date, at which time the bond issuer must repay the principal of the bond to the bondholder.
- Market trading: Bonds can be traded in the secondary market, and investors can buy and sell bonds on exchanges or trading platforms. Bond prices can fluctuate in the market, which affects the bond's yield.
- Yield: The yield of a bond is an important concept. It is the relationship between the interest payment of the bond and the market price of the bond. When bond prices rise, yields fall and vice versa.
- Bond Rating: Bonds typically receive a credit rating, with rating agencies assessing the credit risk of the bond issuer to provide investors with information about the bond's risks.
Bonds are generally considered a relatively low-risk investment option because they typically have stable interest payments and a clear maturity date. However, risks with bonds remain, particularly related to credit risk (the issuer's inability to repay the debt on time) and market risk (bond price fluctuations). Investors should carefully consider these factors when purchasing bonds and make decisions based on their own investment objectives and risk tolerance.